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The Dissertation This general guidance is to assist with MSc dissertations (long essays).Your dissertation provides you with an opportunity to write a substantial piece of academic work on a topic of interest to you.

It is an opportunity to produce a work of scholarship, using the academic skills you have developed Candidates should write as concisely as is possible, with clear and adequate   350 pages) for the PhD degree and 60,000 words for the MSc or MLitt degree.   Lines to be double or one-and-a-half spaced; pages to be double or single sided. [top]   Applicable to the PhDs in Politics & International Studies, Latin American  .It is an opportunity to produce a work of scholarship, using the academic skills you have developed.

Regardless of topic, your dissertation will demonstrate the following skills: defining and outlining a research topic; defining a clear research question; identifying the salient issues; evaluating its reliability and validity; weighing up the evidence on all sides of a debate;arriving at a well-argued conclusion; organising and presenting the results of your work critically, cogently and coherently.A piece of empirical research, conducted on a topic or issue of relevance to social policy.A literature-based long essay providing an analysis of a specific research question of relevance to social policy.There is no preference as to which type of dissertation you write bermudaresults.com/research-paper/how-to-write-custom-energy-conversion-technology-research-paper-120-pages-33000-words-business-one-day-professional.

There is no preference as to which type of dissertation you write.

Choosing a topic Your first task is to choose a topic that interests you how to write custom energy conversion technology research paper 120 pages / 33000 words Business one day.Choosing a topic Your first task is to choose a topic that interests you.You need to find a manageable topic – one that has not been researched excessively nor so under-researched that there is no literature available for you to build on.Your supervisor will be able to help you to do this.Research question Having read relevant literature, you need to focus more specifically on a 'research question'.

This is of fundamental importance as it will ensure that your dissertation has a clear focus.

It is not the same as your research topic, but is a specific question that you want to try and answer.Your research question needs to be defined with care and your supervisor will help you to do this.Your research question can assist with structuring of your dissertation.As you are choosing your topic and defining your research question you will also have to decide upon the conceptual approach, or 'methodology', that you will adopt.Methodology concerns the relationship between your theoretical stance and the manner in which you conduct your investigation.

Most Social Policy dissertations do not fit neatly into any one methodological category or 'paradigm', but broadly speaking they are likely to tend towards one of three broad schools of thought: Empiricist All dissertations involve the use of empirical evidence (even if it is existing evidence reported in the relevant literature), but what is called empiricism is an approach to evidence that is aligned to the conventions associated with the natural sciences.It is concerned to explain external realities from an objective standpoint.Interpretive These are no less rigorous in their use of evidence than empiricist approaches, but interpretivism is a stance that characterises a major strand within the social sciences.It is concerned to understand the nature or meaning of the social world from the subjective standpoint of the people involved.It tends to deal in processes of qualitative observation.

Critical or criticalist Any theoretical approach can result in criticism of social policy, but a critical(ist) approach to the use of evidence is one that is grounded in the analysis of social conflict or relationships of power (for example, Marxism, feminism, or post-structuralism).A critical(ist) approach may draw on elements of either or both of the other approaches insofar as they help to explain or understand social policy, but it is sceptical of empiricism and interpretivism because they do not necessarily question the underlying basis of the status quo.Many Social Policy dissertations are 'applied' rather than 'theoretical', and you may find it difficult to be explicit about your chosen methodology.It is important nonetheless to acknowledge that no dissertation can be free from the conceptual assumptions and the values that you yourself bring to it.You are encouraged to take any of these approaches, but you are required explicitly to reflect within the dissertation upon the basis of your approach.

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Please note that these structures are not meant to be prescriptive, but can form a starting point for thinking about your structure.In terms of content, the aspects mentioned below should normally be included.Remember to seek the advice or your supervisor about the exact structure you choose to adopt Best websites to write a political science dissertation APA Standard Proofreading Academic.Remember to seek the advice or your supervisor about the exact structure you choose to adopt.

Empirical Study Abstract/summary Literature review and policy context Methodology and research methods Conclusion Appendix – e., interview schedule if used It is also a good idea to look at the structure used in published peer-reviewed empirical studies.Abstract Introduction The introduction will give details of the research topic you have decided to focus on, why the topic is of interest, what the gaps are in knowledge, how your dissertation 'adds value' to previous research (i Best website to buy a political science dissertation for me American Custom writing 12 hours 22 pages / 6050 words.Abstract Introduction The introduction will give details of the research topic you have decided to focus on, why the topic is of interest, what the gaps are in knowledge, how your dissertation 'adds value' to previous research (i.It should also include your research question (and any sub-question(s)).

The introduction should provide a brief overview of the structure of your dissertation (i., what different sections/chapters will focus on).Literature review and policy context The literature review should include literature that is pertinent to your research topic and the policy context.It should critically evaluate earlier work in the field, paying due attention to its contributions, and to any methodological problems and limitations involved.

Your literature review might draw on: policy documents research studies relevant theory Having identified gaps in the literature and ways in which you can add value to the research, you need to give your research question and explain how answering this adds to knowledge.This is one of the most important parts of your dissertation as it links with your methods and can help with structuring your dissertation.Methodology and research methods Give details of the methods you have used (sample, procedure etc.Why have you used these methods? How do they enable you to answer the research question? Why are you using a quantitative or qualitative approach? What are the strengths and limitations of your methods?To what extent, if any, will you be able to generalise on the basis of your research? If you are carrying out primary research you need to say how you obtained your sample, how you have ensured anonymity of participants, and any other ethical issues.

You need to explain how you obtained data, via interviews, questionnaires etc.If you are carrying out secondary data analysis you need to describe the data set you are using and relevant variables.If you have carried out empirical work, remember the need for informed consent and confidentiality (do not use actual names of individuals or organisations, institutions etc.(See Research Ethics) Your own personal safety is important when you are carrying out primary research (see Personal Safety and Risk Assessment) Results/findings These can be presented in different ways and will vary depending on whether your research usesquantitative or qualitative methods.

Discussion and conclusions (these can be separate sections) The discussion links your findings with the research question and literature review.Where there are differences, discuss possible reasons.It is important in this section that you reflect critically on the limitations of the empirical research you have undertaken.The conclusions drawn should be substantiated from within the body of the essay.What are the implications for policy and for future research? Literature based dissertation Abstract/summary Describe types of source material used (methodology and research methods) Critically analyse theory, concepts and bodies of research and other literature relating to your research question Discussion and implications for policy Conclusion References A well-argued dissertation is easy to follow.

Essentially, you are trying to tell the reader a story.You will aid clarity if you break up the argument into clear steps.Abstract Introduction This will give details of the research topic you have decided to focus on, why the topic is of interest, what the gaps are in knowledge, how your dissertation 'adds value' to previous research (i.

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It should also include your research question (and any sub-question(s)).The research question should help with structuring your dissertation.You may be putting forward a particular argument and you can give this in your introduction with the issues that you are going to address Your dissertation provides you with an opportunity to write a substantial piece   speaking, they are likely to tend towards one of three schools of thought:   that is aligned to the conventions associated with the natural sciences.   Use 1.5 or double-spacing   London School of Economics and Political Science   Contact us..You may be putting forward a particular argument and you can give this in your introduction with the issues that you are going to address.

The introduction should provide a brief overview of the structure (i.Methodology and research methods This is likely to be a short section giving details of the types of material you have used, books, peer-reviewed articles, grey literature, press reports, internet based materials.It will also highlight any limitations.You need to be aware that some internet sites may be putting forward particular perspectives, so you will need to take this into account in your dissertation.You should also be aware of the limitations of 'grey' research (i .

You should also be aware of the limitations of 'grey' research (i.

, material that has not been through a peer review process).Analysis of literature You are likely to have several chapters/sections that focus on different aspects of your research question/argument.You will also need to explore the policy context.Your analysis might draw on: policy documents Dissertation guidelines General guidance This general guidance is to assist with MSc dissertations (long essays).

These notes should be read in conjunction with any other specific MSc programme guidance you have been given.Your dissertation provides you with an opportunity to write a substantial piece of academic work on a topic of interest to you.It is an opportunity to produce a work of scholarship, using the academic skills you have developed.Regardless of topic, your dissertation will demonstrate the following skills: Defining and outlining a research topic Defining a clear research question Identifying the salient issues Evaluating its reliability and validity Weighing up the evidence on all sides of a debate Arriving at a well-argued conclusion Organising and presenting the results of your work critically, cogently, and coherently Forms of dissertation A piece of empirical research, conducted on a topic or issue relevant to health policy A literature-based long essay, providing analysis of specific research question of relevance to health policy There is no preference as to which type of dissertation you write.Choosing a topic Your first task is to choose a topic that interests you.

You need to find a manageable topic - one that has not been researched excessively, nor so under-researched that there is no literature available for you to build on.Your Academic Adviser will be able to help you to do this.Research question Having read the relevant literature, you need to focues more specifically on a research question.This is of fundamental importance as it will ensure that your dissertation has clear focus.It is not the same as your research topic but is a specific question that you want to try and answer.

Your research question needs to be defined with care, and your Academic Adviser will help you do this.Your research question can assist with the structuring of your dissertation.Methodology As you are choosing your topic and defining your research question, you will also have to decide upon the conceptual approach - or methodology - that you will adopt.Methodology concerns the relationship between your theoretical stance and the manner in which you conduct your investigation.Most heath policy dissertations do not fit into any one methodological category - or paradigm - but broadly speaking, they are likely to tend towards one of three schools of thought: Empiricist: All dissertations involve the use of empirical evidence even if it is existing evidence reported in the relevant literature.

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What is called empiricism is an approach to evidence that is aligned to the conventions associated with the natural sciences.It is concerned to explain external realities from an objective standpoint.Interpretive: These are not less rigorous in their use of evidence than empiricist approaches, but interpretivism is a stance that characterises a major strand within the social sciences Results 1 - 20 of 7216 - Are you in the process of creating a political science dissertation   A Complete Guide To Writing A Political Science Master's Dissertation.   The Marxist 'State': The Transformation of American Political Science, 1968-1989 .   Double spaced essay between paragraphs for her who motivates the  .Interpretive: These are not less rigorous in their use of evidence than empiricist approaches, but interpretivism is a stance that characterises a major strand within the social sciences.

It is concerned to understand the nature or meaning of the social world from the subjective standpoint of the people involved.It tends to deal in processes of qualitative observation Results 1 - 20 of 7216 - You can dissertation funding political science major Right Word   You will also have the opportunity to write a dissertation on an   Political science dissertation Favorite instrument, which makes the church to impose its high school.   Double spaced essay between paragraphs for her who motivates  .

It tends to deal in processes of qualitative observation.

Critical or criticalist: Any theoretical approach can result in criticism of health policy, but a critical(ist) approach to the use of evidence is one that is grounded in the analysis of conflict or relationships of power Results 1 - 20 of 7216 - You can dissertation funding political science major Right Word   You will also have the opportunity to write a dissertation on an   Political science dissertation Favorite instrument, which makes the church to impose its high school.   Double spaced essay between paragraphs for her who motivates  .Critical or criticalist: Any theoretical approach can result in criticism of health policy, but a critical(ist) approach to the use of evidence is one that is grounded in the analysis of conflict or relationships of power.A critical(ist) approach may draw on elements of either or both of the other approaches insofar as they help to explain or understand health policy, but it is sceptical of empiricism and interpretivism because they do not necessarily question the underlying basis of the status quo help me do advertising homework single spaced British US Letter Size.A critical(ist) approach may draw on elements of either or both of the other approaches insofar as they help to explain or understand health policy, but it is sceptical of empiricism and interpretivism because they do not necessarily question the underlying basis of the status quo.Some health policy dissertations are 'applied' rather than 'theoretical', and you may find it difficult to be explicit about your chosen methodology.It is important nonetheless to acknowledge that no dissertation can be free from the conceptual assumptions and the values that you yourself bring into it.You are encouraged to take any of these approaches, but you are required explicitly to reflect within the dissertation upon the basis of your approach.

Dissertation structure Please note that these structures are not meant to be prescriptive, but can form a starting point for thinking about your structure.In terms of content, the aspects mentioned below should normally be included.Remember to seek the advice or your supervisor about the exact structure you choose to adopt.Abstract / Summary Literature review and policy context Methodology and research methods Conclusion Abstract / summary Introduction The introduction will give details of the research topic you have decided to focus on, why the topic is of interest, what the gaps are in knowledge, how your dissertation 'adds value' to previous research (i.It should also include your research question (and any sub-set of question(s)).The introduction should provide a brief overview of the structure of your dissertation (i.what different sections/chapters will focus on).

Literature review and policy context The literature review should include literature that is pertinent to your research topic and the policy context.It should critically evaluate earlier work in the field, paying due attention to its contributions, and to any methodological problems and limitations involved.Your literature review might draw on, among others: policy documents, legislation, statistics from surveys and / or government sources, research studies, relevant theory, etc.Having identified gaps in the literature and ways in which you can add value to the research, you need to give your research question and explain how answering this adds to knowledge.This is one of the most important parts of your dissertation as it links with your methods and can help with structuring your dissertation.

Methodology and research methods Give details of the methods you have used (sample, procedure etc.Why have you used these methods? How do they enable you to answer the research question? Why are you using a quantitative or qualitative approach? What are the strengths and limitations of your methods? To what extent, if any, will you be able to generalise on the basis of your research? If you are carrying out primary research you need to say how you obtained your sample, how you have ensured anonymity of participants, and any other ethical issues.You need to explain how you obtained data, via interviews, questionnaires etc.If you are carrying out secondary data analysis you need to describe the data set you are using and relevant variables.

If you have carried out empirical work, remember the need for informed consent and confidentiality (i.

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do not use actual names of individuals or organisations, institutions etc.Please refer to the Research Ethics Policy and Procedures and the Code of Research Conduct.

Your own personal safety is important when you are carrying out primary research .Your own personal safety is important when you are carrying out primary research.

Please see Personal Safety and Risk Assessment below.Findings and analysis These can be presented in different ways and will vary depending on whether your research uses quantitative or qualitative methods.Discussion and Conclusion - may be separate sections The discussion links your findings with the research question.The conclusions drawn should be substantiated from within the body of the dissertation.

What are the implications for policy? Are there implications for future research? Dissertation length Dissertations for MSc in International Health Policy, International Health policy - Health Economics, and MSc in Global Health are to be no longer than 6,000 words in length.This 6,000 wordcount refers to to the abstract and the main body of the text along with any of the components listed below.On MSc Health Policy, Planning and Financing, dissertation should not exceed 10,000 words in length.This 10,000 wordcount refers to the abstract and the main body of the text along with any of the components listed below that you may wish to include: Title page (not the Department Summative Coursework Cover Sheet) Acknowledgements Footnotes or endnotes Index The reference list - bibliography - is not included in this word limit.Whilst examiners may choose to refer to the appendices during marking, you should not include any material in this section that you expect to be read and contribute to your final mark.

Presentation and layout Headings Headings and sub-headings will help to organise the material better and will also improve presentation.Major headings should be in uppercase and sub-headings in title case.For example: THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE Health Policy and Planning Challenges in the 21st Century Tables and figures Tables, graphs, figures must be clearly numbered, titled and sourced.It is advisable to use the chapter number as a prefix.Tables in chapter 2 will, therefore, be numbered Table 2.

Figures will be numbered in the same way, i.Formatting guidelines Please refer to any programme-specific instructions and consider the guidance of your Academic Adviser.Furthermore, some general guidelines are: Do not try to put too much on one page Use 1.5 or double-spacing Number your pages Check your spelling and punctuation Keep the variety of fonts to a minimum Citation, referencing and plagiarismSupport from the Academic Adviser At the start of each MSc programme, students will be assigned an Academic Adviser who will also be their dissertation supervisor.

The Academic Adviser will guide and assist students in their learning development, to provide guidance and feedback based on student input and discussion.Following the identification of a suitable topic for the dissertation, supervision will be based on three half-hour individual meetings between student and the Academic Adviser.Students should initiate these meetings, and unless there is an emergency, they should make the most of these meetings, covering a range of topics, and getting comprehensive feedback and advice from their Advisor.Meetings are to take place during Lent and Summer terms, with the third meeting no later than mid-July.The Academic Adviser will provide guidance on approach, coverage, questions to be asked, outline structure and research design of the dissertation.

It is the student’s responsibility to submit, with reasonable notice, material that can form the basis of discussions with the Academic Adviser during Lent and Summer Terms.

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In order to maximise the meetings' productivity, it is recommended that students give to the Adviser a list of topics for discussion (e.problems and questions they may have) one week ahead of the meeting date.

In one of the meetings, the Adviser will be able to comment on a 1,000 word summary/outline of the dissertation Sample Title Page, Revised for Electronic Submission .   completed thesis or dissertation to the Graduate School.   Double spacing should follow chapter numbers, chapter titles and major section titles   Physician Scientist Development Award, the American Roentgen Ray Society Scholarship or   Political Science..

In one of the meetings, the Adviser will be able to comment on a 1,000 word summary/outline of the dissertation.

It is important that following the identification of a suitable dissertation topic, all students submit the Dissertation Proposal Form which will be made available online via Moodle.Further details will be provided, along with additional dissertation guidance, during the course of the academic year 1 FORMAT GUIDELINES for THESES AND DISSERTATIONS nbsp.Further details will be provided, along with additional dissertation guidance, during the course of the academic year.If students do not approach the Academic Adviser, he/she may not necessarily chase you 1 FORMAT GUIDELINES for THESES AND DISSERTATIONS nbsp.If students do not approach the Academic Adviser, he/she may not necessarily chase you.It is the student’s obligation to take the initiative.Please do not expect the Adviser to give meticulous comments on drafts: the purpose of the dissertation is to give students a chance to show the their capacity to contribute to academic discussion and debate, and it should be their own effort.

After the end of the Summer Term, students are assumed to be solely self-directed.Do not rely on contact with the Adviser after the end of the Summer Term.Academics are expected to spend the summer vacation on research and writing as well as attending meetings and conferences - and may also take holidays.SA4C1: Long Essay and the Research Process This is a non-assessed course which aims to provide an understanding of issues associated with the research process for all students undertaking MSc degrees in the Department of Health Policy.All students taking Health Policy MSc programmes are strongly encouraged to attend SA4C1.

Please find the SA4C1 course information here, and see the course Moodle page for contents and timings.All students taking Health Policy MSc programmes are strongly encouraged to attend SA4C1: Long Essay and the Research Process.If you are planning to do quantitative or qualitative research for your dissertation, it might also be useful to attend (audit) relevant research methods courses in the Methodology Institute (MY).There is also a very useful Moodle resource developed by Dr Sunil Kumar entitled SA452.3(a) Researching and Writing Assessed Essays and Dissertations.

The resource has been designed to be self-taught and provides a clear explanation of the purpose of each of the research components (for example, literature review, research question) and how the components are inter-related in writing essays and dissertation.Availability of past MSc dissertations The Department makes available a selection of the highest quality dissertations for students to access.Please contact your Programme Manager for details.Deadline for submission on or before 28 August 2018 at 12.00 (midday)byuploading an electronic copy under the correct assignment on the relevant Moodle page.

For part-time students, this applies to the August following your second year of study. Please also refer to the summative coursework submission guidelines in your Programme Handbook.Personal safety and risk assessment School policy and good practice now require a risk assessment where students are engaged in academic work away from LSE which produces what can be termed 'serious additional risk'.Over the summer months many will be undertaking fieldwork for your dissertations.

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For some this will involve poring over the latest Government policies, but for others it will mean going out to talk to stakeholders and policy makers.

Many students will be staying in the UK whilst others will be going further afield to carry out research.With so many variables and permutations it is impossible to offer specific advice about personal safety Sample A - Dissertation .   formatting requirements of ProQuest/University Microfilms International.   American Political Science Association Committee on Publications.   The body text in your dissertation should be double-spaced.   alone are the author of your dissertation. School. The official name of your University is..With so many variables and permutations it is impossible to offer specific advice about personal safety.

The following general points should be kept in mind at all times: Your fieldwork is an important part of your dissertation.However you should never do anything or go anywhere that you believe would put you at personal risk.You should always ensure that you let someone know where you are going, when you are planning to return and when you have returned Best website to write an dissertation political science College Senior British 3 days A4 (British/European).

You should always ensure that you let someone know where you are going, when you are planning to return and when you have returned.

If you are going out to interview stakeholder groups take due care.Where possible go with someone else or hold focus groups.Do not put yourself at risk in order to obtain information.Use common sense at all times when thinking about where and how to gather your information and always pay due care and attention to your own health and safety.

If you are travelling to a country where you are not a citizen and have no right to health care you should take out insurance to cover your costs should you fall ill or require some form of assistance.Seek advice from the Students' Union, from NatWest (next to the Old Building), or from travel companies.In addition, if you are travelling to a country where you are not normally resident you should check to be sure that you have all of your immunisations current and do not require any further medical treatment before you travel.It is worth seeking advice from the Travel Clinic which is in Mortimer Market (off Capper Street), London WC1E 6AU; this is part of the Outpatients Clinic of the Hospital for Tropical Diseases.Country-specific information is also available on the Department of Health website.

Finally, you should check with the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office travel advice web pages for specific information regarding the country to which you are travelling.We expect all students to behave responsibly and comply with the above advice.The School can accept no responsibility for problems you encounter as a result of failure to do so.Along with ethical issues, students should discuss the risk assessment issues of their research work with their Advisers in the first instance.Research ethics All students are expected to discuss the ethical implications of their research with their supervisors.

Where appropriate a research ethics checklist and a research ethics review questionnaire may need to be completed.These are available via the LSE research ethics link below.The conduct of research is a vital part of the life of the department.Not only is it integral to the work of all academic staff, many students in the course of their studies will undertake a piece of primary research for the purposes of a dissertation or thesis.

Although any particular empirical investigation may be modest in scope, if it entails human participants, it is nonetheless essential that staff, students and supervisors should consider and address any ethical implications that may pertain to the project.

While some students will receive explicit instruction in relation to research ethics as part of a taught research methods course, others may not.In either event, it is a requirement that dissertations or theses that are based on data directly gathered from human participants should include a statement to demonstrate that the research has been conducted in accordance with appropriate ethical principles.

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School policy Ensuring the ethical propriety of their research is a requirement of all academic staff and this is something to which a variety of bodies concerned with the governance and funding of research are increasingly attentive – not only in the UK, but also in many other countries in which LSE based researchers may seek to conduct their investigations.Certain overseas governments have procedures for the approval of all or any research that directly involves their citizens.Collaborating agencies may require that proposed research be independently vetted Your dissertation provides you with an opportunity to write a substantial piece of academic work on a topic of interest to you. It is an opportunity to produce a  .

Collaborating agencies may require that proposed research be independently vetted.

In unusually sensitive cases it may be sensible for this to be done in any event.In such instances the School has recently established a Research Ethics Committee that may be consulted How to get a custom writing help political science dissertation 100% plagiarism free A4 (British/European) American double spaced 82 pages / 22550 words.In such instances the School has recently established a Research Ethics Committee that may be consulted.Although it would not usually apply to student research projects, there are certain circumstances in which a piece of research may have to be subject to prior independent ethical scrutiny and approval.For example, any research that involves patients of the UK National Health Service must have approval by a Local Research Ethics Committee bermudaresults.com/thesis-proposal/best-website-to-order-a-general-studies-thesis-proposal-formatting-double-spaced-standard-plagiarism-free.For example, any research that involves patients of the UK National Health Service must have approval by a Local Research Ethics Committee.In addition, the following research would also need ethical approval: Research involving vulnerable groups; sensitive topics Research involving groups where permission of a gatekeeper is required for access to members Research conducted without full informed consent Research involving access to records of confidential information Research which would induce unacceptable psychological stress, anxiety, pain or humiliation Essential considerations Research ethics emphasise that anybody engaged in research has certain obligations: To society at large bermudaresults.com/thesis-proposal/best-website-to-order-a-general-studies-thesis-proposal-formatting-double-spaced-standard-plagiarism-free.

In addition, the following research would also need ethical approval: Research involving vulnerable groups; sensitive topics Research involving groups where permission of a gatekeeper is required for access to members Research conducted without full informed consent Research involving access to records of confidential information Research which would induce unacceptable psychological stress, anxiety, pain or humiliation Essential considerations Research ethics emphasise that anybody engaged in research has certain obligations: To society at large.

 The purpose of research is so far as possible to advance human understanding and not exclusively the interests of the researcher, of any particular organisation, group, or government. All researchers, including students, have a responsibility to make sure that what they do does not prejudice the work of others who may be conducting or who may seek in future to conduct similar investigations. People who are interviewed or observed in the course of research should come to no harm as a result.

The two most widely discussed principles in this connection are informed consent and confidentiality: participants should clearly understand the purposes of the research and must explicitly agree to take part; and they should have a right, if they choose, to have any personal data treated in confidence.Because research may well involve individuals or groups who are unusually vulnerable or marginalised, adhering to these principles can sometimes be problematic.Additionally, it may be necessary to anticipate, for example, that participation in certain kinds of research may occasion emotional distress to the individuals concerned, or that the reporting of research – even when participants have been anonymised - may indirectly harm or unintentionally stigmatise those who took part, or the groups or communities to which they belong.It should also be recognised that researchers have a responsibility to themselves and the School has a responsibility for the safety of staff and students involved in research.Certain kinds of research may expose the investigator to danger, including the risk of violence from participants or because of the inherently hazardous nature of the environment in which the investigation is to be conducted.

In such instances, attention should be paid to the ways in which such risks may be minimised.In the wider context of research, there is an ethical imperative that people should not be objectified as the 'subjects' of research, but that, wherever possible, they should be empowered as participants in the research process.Ideally, this might mean that service users and the members of disadvantaged groups should have a say in how research is designed and conducted.At the very least, it means that researchers have a responsibility fairly and accurately to represent the interests, and to give expression to the voices, of the participants.The Department of Health Policy at the LSE is naturally concerned to promote the highest ethical standards in the research undertaken by staff and students.

It is recognised, however, that such standards are not self-evident or devoid of controversy.For example, guidelines, codes of practice and protocols are necessary and useful, but restrictively interpreted they can constrain or inhibit research with a wider ethical purpose.What is most important is that ethical considerations, when they apply, are properly and openly discussed.